Capital sharp s (ẞ) is the majuscule of eszett. Sharp s is unique among the letters of the Latin alphabet in that it has no traditional upper case form. This is because it never occurs word-initially in German text, and traditional German printing (which used blackletter) never used all-caps. When using all-caps, traditional spelling rules required the replacement of ß with SS. However, in 2010, the use of the capital ẞ became mandatory in official documentation in Germany when writing geographical names in all-caps.
There have been repeated attempts to introduce a majuscule ß. Such letterforms can be found in some old German books dating back to the late 19th century and some later signage and product design. One of the best known examples is the East German 1957 Duden.
Inclusion in Universal Character Set
A proposal by Andreas Stötzner to the Unicode Consortium for the inclusion of capital double s in the Universal Character Set was rejected in 2004, on the basis that capital ß is a typographical issue, and therefore not suitable for character encoding. A reworked version of Stötzner's proposal was submitted on 25 April 2007 by DIN. The proposal suggested the Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S. The proposal has been adopted and the character was added as Unicode character "ẞ" U+1E9E LATIN CAPITAL LETTER SHARP S when Unicode 5.1 was released, on 4 April 2008.
Capital is a type of good that can be consumed now, but if consumption is deferred, an increased supply of consumable goods is likely to be available later. Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue is called his capital." Capital is derived from the Latin word "caput" meaning head, as in "head of cattle". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk, i.e. something that grows over time. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. In Middle Ages France contracted leases and loans bearing interest specified payment in heads of cattle.
How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the location at which bones connect. They are constructed to allow movement (except for skull, sacral, sternal, and pelvic bones) and provide mechanical support, and are classified structurally and functionally.
Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications.
Terms ending in the suffix-sis are singular and refer to just one joint, while -ses is the suffix for pluralization.
An articulate facet is generally seen as a small joint, especially used when speaking of the joints of the ribs.
Structural classification (binding tissue)
Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other. There are three structural classifications of joints:
A building joint is a junction where building elements meet without applying a static load from one element to another. When one or more of these vertical or horizontal elements that meet are required by the local building code to have a fire-resistance rating, the resulting opening that makes up the joint must be firestopped in order to restore the required compartmentalisation.
Whether or not the building elements forming the joint have a fire-resistance rating, the joint design must still consider the anticipated operational movement of each joint. Timing is also important, as freshly poured concrete shrinks particularly during the first few months of a new building, potentially causing joint size changes.
A kinematic pair is a connection between two bodies that imposes constraints on their relative movement. Franz Reuleaux introduced the kinematic pair as a new approach to the study of machines that provided an advance over the motion of elements consisting of simple machines.
Kinematics is the branch of classical mechanics which describes the motion of points, bodies (objects) and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without consideration of the causes of motion. Kinematics as a field of study is often referred to as the "geometry of motion". For further detail, see Analytical dynamics.
Hartenberg & Denavit presents the definition of a kinematic pair:
A lower pair is an ideal joint that constrains contact between a surface in the moving body to a corresponding surface in the fixed body. A lower pair is one in which there occurs a surface or area contact between two members, e.g. nut and screw, universal joint used to connect two propeller shafts.
Cases of lower joints:
IN a policy shift, the PTI-led government has decided to shepherd foreign firms into joint ventures ...Internationaljoint ventures ‘continue to proliferate, stepping into an age of alliance capitalism,’ says a recent working paper , prepared by the Centre of Excellence Pakistan-China Corridor, Ministry of Planning, on ‘Joint ventures under CPEC....
The capital administration on Saturday put the names of nine people on the FourthSchedule of the Anti-Terrorism Act (ATA) for their alleged involvement in land grabbing activities ... earlier, the capital administration and police had jointly prepared a list of 22 alleged land grabbers, officials in the administration and police said....
The benefits of regionalization and joint programming is already implicit in a lot of the CapitalRegion’s education infrastructure ... At Tech Valley High School, which is jointly run by Capital Regeion BOCES and Questar III, a BOCES for counties east of Albany, students start arriving on a smooth day at 7.30 a.m....
Michael Cogley Twitter Email ...Independent.ie ... "We look forward to working with our joint-venture partners Mm Capital, and the local people of the Fumbally neighbourhood, to create a world-class cultural destination with community at its very heart." ... In Ireland, Richard Barrett's Bartra Capital intends to build more than 1,000 units across Dublin. ....
Avery Chen ... Part of the net proceeds will be used for strategic business cooperation with other international tobacco companies, development of its data analytics system and its platform, as well as general working capital. CICC (3908) and China Merchants Securities are joint sponsors for the flotation. ....
Jay Inslee’s proposal to impose a state capital gains tax ... Inslee’s proposal would tax long-term capital gains of more than $25,000, and $50,000 for joint filers at 9 percent, starting in 2020 ... In Washington state, capital gains accounted for about 9 percent of total income ......
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If local governments adopt the joint and consolidation proposals, the study concludes that local governments could see savings of $38 million in capital and operating costs over the next 30 years ... For the assessments, engineers completed capital improvement plans for the towns of ......